There are 15-Most Popular Plant Pest Species of Phylum Arthropods. The crops Pests from the Phylum Arthropoda are highly-popular among researchers. This is widely research and experiment because it is an interesting topic. Whereas, in general, it is proven to have an important role in the world of agriculture. Its existence can affect the productivity and production of overall infected crops. The class of Arthropods consists of the Trilobitomorpha, Chelicerata, Myriapoda, Crustaceans, and Hexapoda. In the animal kingdom classification, the arthropod phylum is the largest when if comparing to other phyla.
Table of 15- Most Popular Plant Pest from Anthropods
The Center for Agriculture and Biosciences International (CABI), a cross-border non-profit researching organization in relation to environmental and agricultural issues based in Wallingford, Oxfordshire, England published a ranking of 15 crop pests from the Phylum of Arthropoda Based on widely researched and popular because widely used as the object of research in Journal Publications. This ranking of data showed a large number of international publications in 2017 from the CABI database.
1.Helicoverpa armigera / Cotton bollworm
Helicoverpa armigera belongs to the Noctuidae family as well as the insect class. This animal is the Most Popular Plant Pest of research with 1619 titles of published articles or journals. It is The largest number compared to other species. Geographically, this species comes from the African region and has now been widely distributed all over the world in the Asian Continent, Africa, Europe, and several regions of the Americas. They are included in polyphagous animals because they have many host plants from various plant families and species. These animals commonly eat plant leaves. The result of this bite is leaf holes that are randomly irregular in form. Until now, some of the plant families that can be the host of Helicoverpa armigera are Malvaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Liliaceae, Fabaceae, Amaranthaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Moraceae, Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, till Pinaceae.
2.Bemicia tabaci / The silverleaf whitefly
This type of pest has an English name called Silverleaf whitefly. This pest is the 2nd most popular plant pest in the world with the publication of journals related to Bemicia Tabaci reaching 1528 titles. Taxonomically, this species belongs to the order Hemiptera. Physically, these insects are small and white-color bodies. It was found in tobacco plants in Greece in 1889 and exploded in the early 1930s in India to spread over various countries of the world.
The impact of this pest is very significant in affecting plant growth and yield. Also, bemisia tabaci is also a vector of the yellow virus/geminivirus which usually makes the leaves turn yellow and the leaves curl and roll upward. If the Geminivirus has infected the plants, plant growth can stunt and become unelongated.
The virus that is carried by Bemicia tabaci attacks the plant phloem tissue so that it inhibits the plant’s photosynthesis. The results of photosynthesis / photosynthate which should translocate throughout the plant body will decrease. The impact is that the vertical and horizontal growth of the plant will stunted. Indeed, if a infected plant worsen due to infection of the gemini virus, it will be difficult to recover or return to its original normal condition because there is no effective drug that has been found to reduce / inhibit the negative impact of this virus on its host plant nowdays.
There are several ways the geminivirus penetrates the body of whitefly. Firstly, gemini virus comes from whitefly when it takes food extract from a host plant that has been previously infected with Geminivirus. Lastly, the virus can get into the insect’s body then circulates through the digestive tract, and salivary glands / salivary glands and circulates in the fluid/blood (hemolymph) found in the insect’s body. When it sucks the food nutrients (Glucose) from healthy plants, the virus penetrates the body of the plant along with the liquid from the insect’s mouth. The retention/resistance of this virus in the insect’s body is very long and can transfer it to the offspring (F1) transovarially, namely through eggs which will then become candidates for new individuals.
3.Tetrancyhus urticae / The two-spotted spider mite
The title of research in international journals related to Tetrancyhus urticae / Red Mites reaches 962. Of course, this makes it one of Most Popular Plant Pest of research in the field of Plant Pests and pathogens. Tetranchyhus article belongs to the family Tetranychidae and includes in the polyphagous animal which has many host plants. Mites damage plants by sucking the liquid from the leaf cells which causes yellow to bronze spots on the leaves. Although the damage caused by individual mites is small, with a large population of up to thousands of mites, of course, it causes thousands of wounds, thereby reducing the photosynthetic ability of plants and can even kill plants. There are several host plants for this pest. The host plants usually the family Malvaceae, Fabaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cannabaceae, Rosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Grossulariaceae, Solanaceae, Vitaceae, to Poaceae.
4.Plutella xylostella / The diamondback moth
Plutella xylostella or cabbage leaf caterpillar became the next largest topic with 926 research titles in international journals. This pest is a part of the Plutellidae family and may originate from Europe, southern Africa, or the Mediterranean region. This species has oligophage properties because it has a limited host, especially from the cabbage family. The stage/phase that is dangerous is when in the larval stage (caterpillar) because it attacks the leaf surface and perforates the leaf flesh (epidermis). Symptoms of a typical attack are leaves with dreamy holes and only leaf veins.
5.Spodoptera litura / Cotton Leafworm / Tobacco Cutworm
Spodoptera litura is the fifth most widely studied insect species. Taxonomically, this species belongs to the Noctuidae family. This caterpillar is polyphagous with a variety of host plants, ranging from soybeans, peanuts, green beans, tobacco, chilies, sweet potatoes, green beans, string beans, spinach, and taro. This pest consumes a lot of the leaves of the host plant. The larval stage (caterpillar) in Spodoptera litura is a dangerous phase because it damages the leaf surface and perforates the leaf flesh (epidermis). Symptoms of a typical attack are leaves with dreamy holes and only leaf veins.
6.Trobolium castaneum / The red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum or flour beetle includes in the tenebrionidae family. These pests come from the Indo-Australian region and do not like open environments (outdoor area). These warehouse pests are able to survive on foods with low water content, which can cause damage to cereals or products that are already in the form of flour. The spread of this pest has spread in 180 countries in the world, covering all continents. In The warehouse, The chemichal pesticides can control c
7.Myzus persicae / The Green Peach Aphid
Myzus persicae is an aphids belonging to the family of Aphididawhich is one of the most studied pests in the world. This type of pest may originate from the Asian region. This animal is also considered as a vector carrier for the gemini virus which causes stunted plants, curled leaves and thickens. Aphids are usually found on the underside of leaves and tend to cluster. They suck the substract (glucose) of young leaves and young plant parts. The affected leaves will appear yellow to brownish red spots. This will cause the leaves to curl because the leaf liquid has been absorbed by these animals. In the affected part of the plant, lice will be found in clustered.
8.Spodoptera frugiperda / The beet armyworm / small mottled willow moth
Spodoptera Frugiperda is a species including the Noctuidae family. Specifically, This species is one of the famous spodoptera genera besides Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera exigua. Morphologically, on the head of this animal, there is a line forming an inverted Y letter. This is some elements/ parts to distinguish from the other species of S. litura. The life cycle of S. frugiperda can last for approximately 1 month. It is polyphagous type because it has miscellaneous host plants include food crops (rice, corn, soybeans), horticultural crops (cabbage, potatoes, onions, and tomatoes), and plantation crops (oil palm, coffee, cotton, and tobacco).
9.Aphis gossypii / the cotton aphid and the melon aphid
This species belongs to the Aphididae family. Besides, The color of Aphis gossypii can vary from yellow to very dark green (almost black). meanwhile, the yellow color in small body size occurs during summer conditions and the larger green forms occur during spring and autumn temperatures. Many host plants of this pest range from the Cucurbitaceae, Malvaceae, Rosaceae, and Solanaceae families. Additionally, these pests such as Myzus persicae and Bemicia tabaci can absorb the liquid in the leavesand. so it can potentially transmit the virus to plants.
10.Nilaparvata lugens/ the rice brown planthopper
Nilvaparta lugens / brown planthopper is one of the most dangerous and detrimental pests of rice, especially in Southeast Asia and East Asia. in brief, these tiny insects suck the plant fluids and at the same time also spread several viruses (reovirus) which cause tungro disease in rice plants. In addition, this tungro disease begins with a change in leaf color, especially on the orange yellow young leaves starting at the tip of the leaf. Young leaves slightly curl, the reduced number of tillers , stunted plants and inhibited growth. In terms of the number of studies using the Nilaparvata lugens object, the number of research journals reached 603 titles.
Willis, K.J. (ed.) 2017. State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. It accesses through https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2017/report/SOTWP_2017.pdf