Salak Fruit or in its scientific language, Salacca zalacca, is a popular fruit plant from Indonesia. Besides, In this country, salak is a favorite fruit of the Indonesian people with a crunchy and sweet taste but it’s healthy. Historically, the origin of salak is not clear, but it is thought to have come from Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia.
Taxonomically, the salak plant is a type of palm family that has some morphological characteristics. Taxonomically, this plant belongs to the Kingdom: Plantae; Clade: Tracheophytes; Clades: Angiosperms; Clades: Monocots; Clade: Commelinids; Order: Arecales Family: Arecaceae; Genus: Salacca; Species: S. zalacca. Morphologically, The salak plant is the Araceae family, so it is closely related to coconut (Cocos nucifera), dates (Phoenix), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq), rattan (Calamus), sago (Metroxylon), and several plants from the same family.
In Indonesia, several types of salak species spread out extensively in several areas of Indonesia. Until now, there are several areas where salak is planted in various provinces. According to data from the Central Statistics Agency, the Republic of Indonesia, the provinces with the highest production of salak in Indonesia concentrate on the island of Java, namely Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), and DI Yogyakarta. Meanwhile, provinces outside Java Island that have high production of salak are Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra) and Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi). These are complete statistical table related to the provinces in Indonesia with the highest amount of salak production in Indonesia
Table Ranking Provinces in Indonesia with the Highest Salak Production in Indonesia in 2020
|Rank||Province||Productions in 2020|
|Source : Badan Pusat Statistik / Indonesia Statistical Agency|
In Indonesia, there are several types of salak, namely Pondoh Salak, Condet Salak from Jakarta, Salak Bali from Sibetan, Bali, Salak Gading from Sleman, DIY, and Penjalinan Salak from Bangkalan, Madura. They have of course different tastes, sizes, and characteristics. The different climate, soil, and environmental aspects, and especially genetic aspects can influence the production and quality of Salak itself.
In general, in Indonesia, the most widely planted salak is the type of salak pondoh. This cultivar has spread in various areas on the island of Java including Central Java, DI Yogyakarta (the Special Region of Yogyakarta), and several areas in West Java. Based on its history, salak pondoh is a cultivar that has developed on the slopes of Mount Merapi. It started to develop in the 1980s. Salak pondoh itself has various variants. Nowadays, some of the famous ones include super pondoh, black pond, nglumut pondoh, and others. In the DI Yogyakarta region, the center for producing salak pondoh is the slopes of Mount Merapi, which is part of the Turi District, Sleman Regency.
Agronomically, salak will grow well in areas with an average annual rainfall of 200-400 millimeters (mm) /month or an average monthly rainfall of more than 100 millimeters (mm). Of course, based on Climatology, Salak plants require high humidity. This plant is also not resistant to full sun (100% of sunlight exposure), so it requires shade plants. The average salak plantation in Indonesia is in the upper-middle plains with an altitude of 100-500 meters above sea level.
Based on pedological (soil) aspects, Salak plants like fertile, loose, and moist soil. The degree of soil acidity (pH) suitable for the cultivation of salak is 4.5 – 7.5. Salak plants cannot stand standing water. In Indonesia, harvesting salak plants can be done throughout the year. However, the biggest harvest or harvest occurs in November, December to January. Salak productivity in Indonesia varies but in general, the yield of salak in one season is about 15 tons per hectare.
Reference Resources of Salak Fruit: Native Fruit of Indonesia with Delicious Taste:
Central Bureau of Statistics. 2020. Production of fruit crops is accessed through https://www.bps.go.id/indicator/55/62/1/hasil-tanaman-fruit-fruit.html on 28 July 2021
Widyastuti, Y.E. 1996. Knowing Indonesia’s Superior Fruit. Self-Help Spreader. Jakarta. 258h.
Wikipedia. 2021.Salak. Accessed via https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salak on July 20th, 2021
Agricultural Technology Assessment Agency (BPTP). Salak (Salacca edulis). Ministry of Agriculture, Republic of Indonesia.