9 Biggest Clove-Producing Countries in the World-There are 9 Biggest Clove-Producing Countries in the World Based on Data from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN) in 2019. Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. Eugenia aromaticum), plant species belonging to the family Myrtaceae. This species is a native plant of Indonesia. Functionally, cloves have been beneficial as a spice in some spicy dishes. Furthermore, in the medical world, some drugs use clove chemical extraction for anesthetic treatment.
Taxonomically, cloves are classified in the division: Spermatophyta; Subdivision: Angiosperms; Class: Dicotyledoneae; Order: Myrtales; Family: Myrtaceae; Genus: Syzygium; Species: Syzygium aromaticum L. In terms of his relationship with the other plants, considering that clove plants are plants belonging to the Myrtaceae family, clove plants still have close relationships with guava (Psidium guajava), water guava (S. aqueum), and eucalyptus (Melaleuca leucadendra).
Cloves produce many useful chemical compounds. One of them is Eugenol. Eugenol (C10H12O2) is a clear yellowish compound, which is easily soluble in solvents. Basically, eugenol is a compound in clove plants especially in flowers and has functioned as antifungal and antibacterial substances so that this compound has the main role medical world.
In some countries, besides as raw material for cigarettes, people have used cloves as spices and herbal medicines besides fruit, leaves, and flowers. Clove oil becomes medicine to relieve toothache is useful as aromatherapy. Many benefits are provided by this plant, especially in terms of medical and food. Here Are Some of Biggest Clove-Producing Countries in The World Based on Data Obtained from The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) In 2019.
Table of the 9 Biggest Clove-Producing Countries Ranking in 2019
|Rank||Countries||Clove Production in 2019|
|3||United Republic of Tanzania||8,970|
|Source : FAO Statistical Database (FAO Stat), 2019|
Description of 5 Biggest Clove-Producing Countries
Indonesia is the largest clove-producing country in the world. In 2019, the total production reached 134 thousand tons. The first plantation of clove is in Maluku, Indonesia, but historically, the spread of clove plants to the other region began in 1870 and has spread widely until now to various provinces in Indonesia.
Along with the development of time and the dynamics of the national clove industry, the national clove plantation area in 2019 reached 573,873 hectares with productivity reaching 419 kg/hectare with more than 95% of clove plantations was small-scale farmers. Functionally, cloves originating from Indonesia are not only used to meet domestic needs but also to meet export needs. According to data from the director-general of plantations at the ministry of agriculture, the volume of Indonesian clove exports in 2019 reached 29 thousand tons with destinations to several world countries such as India, Vietnam, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Singapore.
Regionally, according to data from the Director-General of Plantations at the Ministry of Agriculture in 2019, clove plantations in Indonesia spread across several regions in Indonesia, but the center of clove production is still in the Eastern area of Indonesia, namely in Central Sulawesi province with an area of 76,049 hectares, North Sulawesi 75,287 hectares, South Sulawesi of 64,651 hectares, and Maluku 44,452 hectares. In Indonesia, there are 4 types of clove plants that are popular, namely Siputih, Sikotok, Zanzibar, and Ambon cloves. In Indonesia, cloves usage is raw materials for kretek cigarettes and medicine.
Madagascar is still the second-largest clove producer in the world. In 2019, the total production reached 23 thousand tons. The main cultivation and production area is Analanjirofo which belongs to the Toamasina province, including Tamatave, Sainte-Marie Island, Mananara, Fenoarivo East (Fénérive), and Soanierana Ivongo. Clove harvesting varies depending on the area but generally takes place between October and March. In this country, Cloves have a wide variety of culinary and non-culinary usage. As a spice, cloves are used in curries, spicy fruit cakes, sauerkraut, and a variety of dishes and drinks such as red wine.
Tanzania is the 3rd largest clove producing country with production reaching 8.9 thousand tons in 2019. The largest clove-producing regions are Zanzibar and Pembe. The harvesting time usually occurs in September-November. Historically, the cloves grown and cultivated from this area originated in Indonesia.
Comoros is the 4th largest clove producer in the world. In 2019, clove production in a country with only around 700 thousand reached 2.3 thousand tons of cloves. The types of cloves that are widely planted are Zanzibar, Siputih, and posi-posi. Many of this country’s clove are exported to various countries in the world.
Sri Lanka is the 5th largest clove-producing country in the world with production reaching 4.3 thousand tons. Cloves are widely cultivated in the humid central regions of the country. Kandi, Kegalle, and Matale districts are the main areas for the cultivation of this crop. The clove harvest usually occurs in December – April. Many cloves from Sri Lanka are exported to several countries in the world.
Food and Agriculture Organization. 2018. Top 10 Producers of Cloves. Accessed via http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC/visualize