5 World’s largest natural rubber producers in 2019

5 World’s largest natural rubber producers in 2019

There are 5 World’s largest natural rubber producers in 2019 based on The Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOStat), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN). So far, as we know, natural rubber is an important agricultural commodity in the world. Its usage is very diverse, especially as the main ingredient for making tires (for vehicle transportation) and for some tools/products (tools) that require flexibility.



Natural rubber (natural rubber) comes from the sap of the para/rubber plant (Hevea brasiliensis) which comes from the Amazon Region, South America, and until now has spread in many countries and has been cultivated massively. Rubber sap is obtained by tapping, namely by cutting the bark of the rubber tree so that the latex/sap comes out. More scientifically, rubber tapping is essentially an activity to cut/open latex vessels so that latex/sap drips out of the latex vessels.


Table Rank of 10 World’s largest natural rubber producers in 2019

RangkingCountryProduction in 2019
Tons
1Thailand4.839.952
2Indonesia3.448.782
3Vietnam1.185.157
4India 1.001.405
5China 839.909
6Côte d'Ivoire664.695
7Malaysia639.830
8Philippines 431.675
9Guatemala350.501
10Myanmar264.943

Source : FAOSTAT, 2019


The rubber plant (Hevea brasiliensis) is a plant originating from the Amazon forest region, South America-based countries i.e. Brazil, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, and Bolivia. Taxonomically, the rubber plant or Hevea brasiliensis belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family. These Plants that are included in this family come from several ornamental plants such as Kasturba (Euphorbia pulcherrima), Euphorbia esula, Triadica sebifera / tallow tree China / Chinese fat, cassava plants (Manihot esculenta), castor (Ricinus communis).


Some Statistics of World’s largest natural rubber producers Based on Continent and Countries


Source :FAOSTAT


Based on a report from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in 2019, the total natural rubber produced worldwide reaches 14.6 million tons with ​​12.3 million hectares of the planted area all over the world. From the FAO report, based on the production area, the main rubber producer is in the Asian continent with a contribution of 88.4% of total world production. Its output reaches 12.9 million tons of natural rubber followed by the African continent at 6.8% or around 996 thousand tons, and America at 4.7% or around 687 thousand tons.



1.Thailand

Thailand is the world’s largest rubber-producing country with natural rubber production reach  4.8 million tons in 2019. Most of the rubber plantation area is in the southern region. Surat Thani, Trang, Songkla, and Yala provinces are some of the provinces with the largest cultivation area in Thailand. In 2019, Thai rubber plants experienced many attacks by leaf fall disease caused by the fungal pathogen Pestalotiopsis sp. More than 600 thousand hectares of rubber plants had damaged due to this disease.

In Thailand, rubber is very beneficial as raw material for making tires for vehicles, gloves, and various other products. In addition, in this country, many automotive industry companies used and need a lot of rubber raw materials. Companies such as Bridgestone, Michelin, Yokohama, and Durex are some of the main consumers for rubber customers in the country. Apart from meeting domestic needs, Thai rubber also exported to many countries in the world such as China, Malaysia, South Korea, and several countries in the world.



2. Indonesia

Indonesia is the 2nd largest rubber-producing country in the world. In 2019, the rubber produced reached 3.4 million tons. Historically, in the beginning, rubber in Indonesia was cultivated in North Sumatra in 1903 and in Java in 1906. The seeds came from England and were sent to Bogor in 1876 which was collected by an explorer from England, namely Henry Alexander Wickman from the area between the Tapajoz and Medeira River in the middle of the Amazon Valley.

Until now, the area of ​​rubber cultivation has spread to various provinces in Indonesia. Data from the Director-General of Plantation, Ministry of Agriculture noted that the total area of ​​rubber plantations reached 3.6 million hectares, including state, Farmers, and private companies. In Indonesia, rubber plantation areas are still dominated by smallholder farmer plantations. Data records that the area of ​​smallholder plantations reaches 3 million hectares so that almost half of the total area of ​​Indonesian rubber plantations is smallholder plantations.



3. Vietnam

Vietnam is the world’s 3rd largest producer of natural rubber. In 2019, Vietnam’s natural rubber production reached 1.18 million tons. In this country, rubber was first planted and cultivated in the 1900s during the French occupation of this country. Over time, plants began to spread to various regions in the country of Vietnam and became one of the main contributors in generating foreign exchange for this country. In 2017, total foreign exchange from rubber plant products reached the US $ 6 billion or around 3% of Vietnam’s total exports.

Until now, geographically, the southern part of Vietnam is still the largest area for rubber cultivation. The total planted area in this region reaches more than 500 thousand hectares. The provinces of Giai Lai, Kon Tum, Dak Lak, Dak Nom, and Lam Dong are the centers of rubber cultivation areas in the country. Giai Lai Province has an area of ​​around 120 thousand hectares, Kon Tum around 80 thousand hectares, Dak Lak about 40 thousand hectares, Dak Nong about 30 thousand hectares, and Lam Dong about 25 thousand hectares. In this country, control of rubber land is still managed by state-owned rubber companies that control more than 80% of the entire rubber plantation area in the country. Most of the rubber from Vietnam is for export. The export destination for Vietnamese rubber is mainly China.



4. India

India is the 4th largest producer of natural rubber in the world in 2019. In that year, its total rubber production reached 1 million tons. In this country, the introduction of rubber began in the late 1800s and cultivated commercially in 1902. Until now, rubber plants have developed and are widespread in several states. Geographically, the Kerala, Tripura, Assam, and Tamil Nandu regions are the main centers of rubber cultivation in India. Although domestic demand is increasing, India also exported its rubber to several countries in the world

In this country, many rubber plants are cultivated by small-scale farmers with a planted area of ​​under 10 hectares (ha). Total Small farmers Who cultivated this commodity around 1.3 million. In India, the usage of rubber is to meet industrial needs, especially in the transportation sector.



5.China

China was the world’s fifth-largest producer of natural rubber in 2018. In that year, its total rubber production reached 839 thousand tons. Most of which came from Yunnan Province. In this country, many rubber plantations are cultivated by large plantations such as Sinochem International Corporation, China Hainan Rubber Industry Group Co., Ltd., Guangdong Guangken Rubber Group Co., Ltd., and Yunnan State Farms Group Co., Ltd. Despite being the 5th largest rubber-producing country in the world, China still imported natural rubber from other countries. Approximately 41% of the world’s total rubber needs are imported to this panda country.



Source of Article World’s largest natural rubber producers in 2019:

Food and Agriculture Organization. 2019. Natural Rubber: top 10 producers 2019.  Accessed via  http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC/visualize

PR Newswire. 2020. Global and China Natural Rubber Industry Report, 2019-2025. Accessed via https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-and-china-natural-rubber-industry-report-2019-2025-300854424.html

Phuc, X and Tran H. N. 2014.  Rubber Expansion and Forest Protection in Vietnam. Accessed via https://www.forest-trends.org/publications/rubber-expansion-and-forest-protection-in-vietnam/

Forrest Trend. 2018. Vietnam Rubber Industry (current Status and sustainable development solution). Accessed via http://goviet.org.vn/upload/aceweb/content/2019.9.20.%20FINAL_EN_Report_Vietnam%20Rubber%20Industry%20GC%20nbt.pdf

Department of Commerce. 2019.  National Rubber Policy 2019.  Accessed via https://commerce.gov.in/writereaddata/uploadedfile/MOC_636871123490373426_National%20Rubber%20Policy%202019.pdf

Dirjen Perkebunan, Kementrian Pertanian.2019. Buku Publikasi Statistik Karet (Rubber) 2018 – 2020. Accessed via http://ditjenbun.pertanian.go.id/?publikasi=buku-publikasi-statistik-2018-2020

Sayamol, K dan Bandita.Y. 2006.Rights of Rubber Farmers in Thailand under Free Trade Accessed via https://wrm.org.uy/other-relevant-information/rights-of-rubber-farmers-in-thailand-under-free-trade/

Thailand Board of Investment. 2016. Thailand’s Rubber Industry. Accessed via https://www.boi.go.th/upload/content/Rubber_5a3b80bcc4882.pdf

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