World’s largest natural rubber producersWorld’s largest natural rubber producers

There are 10 World’s largest natural rubber producers in 2021 based on The Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOStat), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN). So far, as we know, natural rubber is an important agricultural commodity in the world. Its usage is very diverse, especially as the main ingredient for making tires (for vehicle transportation) and for some tools/products (tools) that require flexibility.


World’s largest natural rubber producers- the articles

Natural rubber (natural rubber) comes from the sap of the para/rubber plant (Hevea brasiliensis) which comes from the Amazon Region, South America, and until now has spread in many countries and has been cultivated massively. Rubber sap is obtained by tapping, namely by cutting the bark of the rubber tree so that the latex/sap comes out. More scientifically, rubber tapping is essentially an activity to cut/open latex vessels so that latex/sap drips out of the latex vessels.


Table Rank of 10 World’s largest natural rubber producers in 2020 and 2021

RankCountriesProduction in 2020Production in 2021
(tonnes)(tonnes)
1Thailand4,703,1714,643,721
2Indonesia3,037,3483,121,474
3Viet Nam1,226,0961,271,858
4India687,600749,000
5China, mainland687,600749,000
6Côte d’Ivoire936,061730,062
7Malaysia514,702469,669
8Philippines422,407430,636
9Cambodia358,700374,300
10Myanmar274,265259,500
Source : FAOSTAT, 2022

Source : FAOSTAT, 2022


The rubber plant (Hevea brasiliensis) is a plant originating from the Amazon forest region, South America-based countries i.e. Brazil, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, and Bolivia. Taxonomically, the rubber plant or Hevea brasiliensis belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family. These Plants that are included in this family come from several ornamental plants such as Kasturba (Euphorbia pulcherrima), Euphorbia esula, Triadica sebifera / tallow tree China / Chinese fat, cassava plants (Manihot esculenta), castor (Ricinus communis).


Some Statistics of World’s largest natural rubber producers Based on Continent and Countries


10 World’s largest natural rubber producers- Statistics on Continent and Productions

Source :FAOSTAT, 2022


World’s Harvested Areas and World’s Production of Natural Rubber From 2000 to 2021


10 World’s largest natural rubber producers- World's Production and Harvested Areas of Natural Rubber

Based on a report from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in 2021, the total natural rubber produced worldwide reaches 14 million tonnes with ​​12.9 million hectares of the planted area all over the world. From the FAO report, based on the production area, the main rubber producer is in the Asian continent with a contribution of 88.4% of total world production. Its output reaches 12.3 million tonnes of natural rubber followed by the African continent at 6.8% or around 1.1 million tonnes, and America at 4.7% or around 492 thousand tons.



1.Thailand

Thailand is the world’s largest rubber-producing country with natural rubber production reach  4.7 million tons in 2021. Most of the rubber plantation area is in the southern region. Surat Thani, Trang, Songkla, and Yala provinces are some of the provinces with the largest cultivation area in Thailand. In 2019, Thai rubber plants experienced many attacks by leaf fall disease caused by the fungal pathogen Pestalotiopsis sp. More than 600 thousand hectares of rubber plants had damaged due to this disease.

In Thailand, rubber is very beneficial as raw material for making tires for vehicles, gloves, and various other products. In addition, in this country, many automotive industry companies used and need a lot of rubber raw materials. Companies such as Bridgestone, Michelin, Yokohama, and Durex are some of the main consumers for rubber customers in the country. Apart from meeting domestic needs, Thai rubber also exported to many countries in the world such as China, Malaysia, South Korea, and several countries in the world.



2. Indonesia

Indonesia is the 2nd largest rubber-producing country in the world. In 2021, the rubber produced reached 3.1 million tons. Historically, in the beginning, rubber in Indonesia was cultivated in North Sumatra in 1903 and in Java in 1906. The seeds came from England and were sent to Bogor in 1876 which was collected by an explorer from England, namely Henry Alexander Wickman from the area between the Tapajoz and Medeira River in the middle of the Amazon Valley.

Until now, the area of ​​rubber cultivation has spread to various provinces in Indonesia. Data from the Director-General of Plantation, Ministry of Agriculture noted that the total area of ​​rubber plantations reached 3.7 million hectares, including state, Farmers, and private companies. In Indonesia, rubber plantation areas are still dominated by smallholder farmer plantations. Data records that the area of ​​smallholder plantations reaches 3 million hectares, so that almost half of the total area of ​​Indonesian rubber plantations is smallholder plantations.

Statistically, according to the Directorate of Estate, Ministry of Agriculture, In 2020, geographically, there are some provinces in Indonesia that has become the main rubber plantation. These provinces include Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara,Riau, Jambi, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan tengah, kalimantan selatan, Bengkulu, and Lampung.



3. Vietnam

Vietnam is the world’s 3rd largest producer of natural rubber. In 2021, Vietnam’s natural rubber production reached 1.2 million tons. In this country, rubber was first planted and cultivated in the 1900s during the French occupation of this country. Over time, plants began to spread to various regions in the country of Vietnam and became one of the main contributors in generating foreign exchange for this country. In 2017, total foreign exchange from rubber plant products reached the US $ 6 billion or around 3% of Vietnam’s total exports.

Until now, geographically, the southern part of Vietnam is still the largest area for rubber cultivation. The total planted area in this region reaches more than 500 thousand hectares. The provinces of Giai Lai, Kon Tum, Dak Lak, Dak Nom, and Lam Dong are the centers of rubber cultivation areas in the country. Giai Lai Province has an area of ​​around 120 thousand hectares, Kon Tum around 80 thousand hectares, Dak Lak about 40 thousand hectares, Dak Nong about 30 thousand hectares, and Lam Dong about 25 thousand hectares. In this country, control of rubber land is still managed by state-owned rubber companies that control more than 80% of the entire rubber plantation area in the country. Most of the rubber from Vietnam is for export. The export destination for Vietnamese rubber is mainly China.



4. India

India is the 4th largest producer of natural rubber in the world in 2021. In that year, its total rubber production reached 749 thousand tonnes. In this country, the introduction of rubber began in the late 1800s and cultivated commercially in 1902. Until now, rubber plants have developed and are widespread in several states. Geographically, the Kerala, Tripura, Assam, and Tamil Nandu regions are the main centers of rubber cultivation in India. Although domestic demand is increasing, India also exported its rubber to several countries in the world

In this country, many rubber plants are cultivated by small-scale farmers with a planted area of ​​under 10 hectares (ha). Total Small farmers Who cultivated this commodity around 1.3 million. In India, the usage of rubber is to meet industrial needs, especially in the transportation sector.



5.China

China was the world’s fifth-largest producer of natural rubber in 2021. In that year, its total rubber production reached 749 thousand tonnes. Most of which came from Yunnan Province. In this country, many rubber plantations are cultivated by large plantations such as Sinochem International Corporation, China Hainan Rubber Industry Group Co., Ltd., Guangdong Guangken Rubber Group Co., Ltd., and Yunnan State Farms Group Co., Ltd. Despite being the 5th largest rubber-producing country in the world, China still imported natural rubber from other countries. Approximately 41% of the world’s total rubber needs are imported to this panda country.


6.Côte d’Ivoire 

Côte d’Ivoire is the 6th biggest country producer of Natural Rubber in 2021. According to FAO Statistical Corporate Database, the production of natural rubber from Côte d’Ivoire reached  730,062 tonnes. Statistically, Ivory Coast is Africa’s biggest rubber producer. Based on its economic, Ivory Coast also exported its rubber to foreign countries about 1 million tonnes in 2020. Genetically, some of rubber clones developed in Ivory coast are IRCA 111, IRCA 109, IRCA 130, IRCA 18, GT 1, PR 107.

7.Malaysia                     

Malaysia is the 7th biggest country producer of natural rubber in 2021. According to FAO Statistical Corporate Database (FAOSTAT), the production of Natural Rubber from Malaysia reached 469,669 tonnes. Historically, The rubber plantation was started in Malaysia in 1877 and still developed until now. Geographically, Johor still of Southern Malaysia still becomes the greatest contributor to Malaysia’s rubber output. 

8.Philippines    

Philippines is the 8th biggest country producer of natural rubber in 2021. According to FAO Statistical Corporate Database (FAOSTAT), the production of Natural Rubber from Philippines reached 430,636 tonnes. Geographically, there are some areas of natural rubber production areas in Philippines. As of 2021, the top rubber-producing province in the country is Cotabato, Zamboanga Sibugay and Basilan. 

9.Cambodia      

Cambodia is the 9th biggest country producer of natural rubber in 2021. Statistically, the production of rubber from Cambodia reached 374,300 tonnes. Geographically, in Cambodia, there are some province of rubber plantations. These provinces include Kampong Cham, Kratie, Kampong Thom, Ratanakiri, Mondulkiri, Battambang.

10.Myanmar                 

Myanmar is the 10th biggest country producer of Natural rubber in 2021. Commonly, the production of Myanmar’s rubber reached 259,500 tonnes. In Myanmar, geographically, there are some states that has huge production of natural rubber.  Mon State, Tanintharyi, Kayin are some of the regions in Myanmar that has huge population of rubber trees. They become the center production of Rubber in Myanmar.


Source of Article 10 World’s largest natural rubber producers

Food and Agriculture Organization. 2019. Natural Rubber: top 10 producers 2019.  Accessed via  http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC/visualize

PR Newswire. 2020. Global and China Natural Rubber Industry Report, 2019-2025. Accessed via https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-and-china-natural-rubber-industry-report-2019-2025-300854424.html

Phuc, X and Tran H. N. 2014.  Rubber Expansion and Forest Protection in Vietnam. Accessed via https://www.forest-trends.org/publications/rubber-expansion-and-forest-protection-in-vietnam/

Forrest Trend. 2018. Vietnam Rubber Industry (current Status and sustainable development solution). Accessed via http://goviet.org.vn/upload/aceweb/content/2019.9.20.%20FINAL_EN_Report_Vietnam%20Rubber%20Industry%20GC%20nbt.pdf

Department of Commerce. 2019.  National Rubber Policy 2019.  Accessed via https://commerce.gov.in/writereaddata/uploadedfile/MOC_636871123490373426_National%20Rubber%20Policy%202019.pdf

Dirjen Perkebunan, Kementrian Pertanian.2019. Buku Publikasi Statistik Karet (Rubber) 2018 – 2020. Accessed via http://ditjenbun.pertanian.go.id/?publikasi=buku-publikasi-statistik-2018-2020

Sayamol, K dan Bandita.Y. 2006.Rights of Rubber Farmers in Thailand under Free Trade Accessed via https://wrm.org.uy/other-relevant-information/rights-of-rubber-farmers-in-thailand-under-free-trade/

Thailand Board of Investment. 2016. Thailand’s Rubber Industry. Accessed via https://www.boi.go.th/upload/content/Rubber_5a3b80bcc4882.pdf

PCAARRD’s Industry Strategic Science and Technology Plans. Accessed via https://ispweb.pcaarrd.dost.gov.ph/isp-commodities/rubber/#:~:text=As%20of%202021%2C%20the%20top,Zamboanga%20Peninsula%2C%20SOCCSKSARGEN%20and%20BARMM .

Yem, D., Top, N., Lic, V. (2015). Rubber Plantation Development in Cambodia: A Cost-Benefit Analysis. In: James, D., Francisco, H. (eds) Cost-Benefit Studies of Natural Resource Management in Southeast Asia. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287-393-4_7

FFTC Agricultural Policy Platform (FFTC-AP). Myanmar’s natural rubber Forward Policy : How to do it ?. Accessed via https://ap.fftc.org.tw/article/2606 .

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